Research

The FitHeads System is based on extensive research into how to make healthy habits permanent. In addition to significant primary research, this unique system leverages a wealth of learning from research in the areas of behavior change, motivational theory, exercise science, personal therapy, communications and learning styles.

Published research findings support the significant value of a walking program in disease and disability risk reduction and management.
Public Health and Human Services Activity Recommendations for Arthritis
In 2008, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued new guidelines for physical activity.
Relationship between physical activity and stiff or painful joints in mid-aged women and older women: a 3-year prospective study.
Heesch KC, Miller YD, Brown WJ. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9(2):R34.
School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Blair Drive, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. kheesch@hms.uq.edu.au
Do walking and leisure-time physical activity protect against arthritis in older women?
Heesch KC, Brown WJ.
1: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008 Dec;62(12):1086-91.
School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. kheesch@hms.uq.edu.au
The effects of aerobic training and nutrition education on functional performance in low socioeconomic older adults.
Moore-Harrison TL, Speer EM, Johnson FT, Cress ME.
J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2008;31(1):18-23.
Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 29223, USA. tlmoore2@uncc.edu
Regular Walking Nearly Halves Disability Risk

This article was adapted from a press release issued by University of Georgia.
Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer
Eliassen AH, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE
JAMA, 2006 Jul 12;296(2):193-201.
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. heather.eliassen@channing.harvard.edu
Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.
Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, Kroenke CH, Colditz GA.
JAMA. 2005 May 25;293(20):2479-86
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. michelle.holmes@channing.harvard.edu
Physical activity and breast cancer: a systematic review.
Monninkhof EM, Elias SG, Vlems FA, van der Tweel I, Schuit AJ, Voskuil DW, van Leeuwen FE; TFPAC.
Epidemiology. 2007 Jan;18(1):137-57.
University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands. e.monninkhof@umcutrecht.nl
Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Cohort Study.
McTiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E, Wilcox S, Coates R, Adams-Campbell LL, Woods N, Ockene J; Women's Health Initiative Cohort Study.
JAMA. 2003 Sep 10;290(10):1331-6
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. amctiern@fhcrc.org
Body weight: estimation of risk for breast and endometrial cancers.
Ballard-Barbash R, Swanson CA.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Mar;63(3 Suppl):437S-41S
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7344, USA.
Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk.
Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC.
JAMA. 1997 Nov 5;278(17):1407-11
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Influence of pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity on mortality in breast cancer survivors: the health, eating, activity, and lifestyle study.
Irwin ML, Smith AW, McTiernan A, Ballard-Barbash R, Cronin K, Gilliland FD, Baumgartner RN, Baumgartner KB, Bernstein L.
J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 20;26(24):3958-64
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA. melinda.irwin@yale.edu
Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Dorn J, Vena J, Brasure J, Freudenheim J, Graham S.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Feb;35(2):278-85
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214-3000, USA. jdorn@acsu.buffalo.edu
Past recreational physical activity and risk of breast cancer.
Macera CA.
Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Mar;15(2):115-6.
School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.
Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: effect modification by breast cancer subtypes and effective periods in life.
Schmidt ME, Steindorf K, Mutschelknauss E, Slanger T, Kropp S, Obi N, Flesch-Janys D, Chang-Claude J.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Dec;17(12):3402-10. Epub 2008 Nov 24
Unit of Environmental Epidemiology Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg Germany.
Physical activity and breast cancer risk among women in the southwestern United States.
Slattery ML, Edwards S, Murtaugh MA, Sweeney C, Herrick J, Byers T, Giuliano AR, Baumgartner KB.
Ann Epidemiol. 2007 May;17(5):342-53
Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84117, USA.
Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.
Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, Kroenke CH, Colditz GA.
JAMA. 2005 May 25;293(20):2479-86
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. michelle.holmes@channing.harvard.edu
Physical activity and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer
Holick CN, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A, Titus-Ernstoff L, Bersch AJ, Stampfer MJ, Baron JA, Egan KM, Willett WC
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Feb;17(2):379-86. Epub 2008 Feb 4
Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. crystal.holick@i3drugsafety.com
Physical activity and cancer risk: dose-response and cancer, all sites and site-specific
Thune I, Furberg AS.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jun;33(6 Suppl):S530-50; discussion S609-10
Institute of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. Inger.Thune@ism.uit.noPhysical activity and cancer prevention--data from epidemiologic studies. Lee IM.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Nov;35(11):1823-7.
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ilee@rics.bwh.harvard.edu
Relation between intensity of physical activity and breast cancer risk reduction.
Friedenreich CM, Courneya KS, Bryant HE. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Sep;33(9):1538-45.
Division of Epidemiology, Prevention and Screening, Alberta Cancer Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. chrisf@cancerboard.ab.caA prospective study of age-specific physical activity and premenopausal breast cancer. Maruti SS, Willett WC, Feskanich D, Rosner B, Colditz GA.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 May 21;100(10):728-37. Epub 2008 May 13.
Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N., M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. smaruti@fhcrc.org
Reduction of the individual cancer risk by physical exercise.
Willer A.
Onkologie. 2003 Jun;26(3):283-9.
III. Medizinische Universitätsklinik, Fakultät für Klinische Medizin Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg, Germany. andreas.willer@med3.ma.uni-heidelberg.de
Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.
Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, Kroenke CH, Colditz GA.
JAMA. 2005 May 25;293(20):2479-86.
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. michelle.holmes@channing.harvard.edu
Staying slim improve breast cancer survival odd
The Associated Press – 2007
Hazel Nichols, a doctoral student at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; the study was paid for by the Susan G. Komen for the cure Breast Cancer Foundation; Dr. Craig Thompson, director of the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania
Weight Gain After Breast Cancer Diagnosis Reduced Survival
Lisa M. Cockrell, December 10, 2007
Walking Reduces Breast Cancer Risk
The Nurse's Health Study is following the lives and health of 121,701 registered nurses and was published in the Archives of Internal Medicine
Weight gain prior to diagnosis and survival from breast cancer.
Cleveland RJ, Eng SM, Abrahamson PE, Britton JA, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Gammon MD.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Sep;16(9):1803-11.
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, CB 7435 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7435, USA.
Workshop report: physical activity and cancer prevention.
Marrett LD, Theis B, Ashbury FD.
Chronic Dis Can. 2000;21(4):143-9.
Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2L7, Canada. Loraine.marrett@cancercare.on.ca.
Physical Activity and Risk of Recurrence and Mortality in Breast Cancer Survivors: Findings from the LACE Study
Barbara Sternfeld1, Erin Weltzien1, Charles P. Quesenberry, Jr.1, Adrienne L. Castillo1, Marilyn Kwan1, Martha L. Slattery2 and Bette J. Caan1 1 Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California; and 2 Division of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 18, 87-95, January 1, 2009. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0595
© 2009 American Association for Cancer Research
Cancer and Staying Fit
By Carolyn M. Kaelin, M.D, M.P.H, F.A.C.S., and Francesca Coltera Kaelin is on the faculty of Harvard Medical School and the staff of Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Newsweek
Maintenance of physical activity in breast cancer survivors after a randomized trial.
Vallance JK, Courneya KS, Plotnikoff RC, Dinu I, Mackey JR.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jan;40(1):173-80.
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Obesity and Metabolism: Weight Gain and the Growing Risk of Cancer
News Archives: 2007
December 7, 2007
Presented by researchers at the American Association for Cancer Research's Sixth Annual Internal Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, being held from December 5-8 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Fat May Fuel Breast Cancer Growth
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute Advance Access
Published February 26, 2008
By Karyn Hede
The role of exercise in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular risk.
Papademetriou V, Kokkinos PF.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 1996 Sep;5(5):459-62.
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
The role of exercise training in the treatment of hypertension: an update.
Hagberg JM, Park JJ, Brown MD.
Sports Med. 2000 Sep;30(3):193-206.
Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742-2611, USA. jh103@umail.umd.edu
Physical activity and risk of stroke in women.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Manson JE.
JAMA. 2000 Jun 14;283(22):2961-7.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115. frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu
Physical activity and risk for cardiovascular events in diabetic women.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Solomon C, Liu S, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Manson JE.
Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jan 16;134(2):96-105.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu
Physical activity and stroke in British middle aged men.
Wannamethee G, Shaper AG.
BMJ. 1992 Mar 7;304(6827):597-601.
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London.
Physical activity and the prevention of stroke.
Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG.
J Cardiovasc Risk. 1999 Aug;6(4):213-6.
Department of Primary Care and Population Science, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK. goya@rfhsm.ac.uk
Physical activity and risk of stroke in women.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Manson JE.
JAMA. 2000 Jun 14;283(22):2961-7.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115. frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu
Moderate level of aerobic fitness may lower stroke risk
Abstract 119
American Heart Association
News Release 02.21.08B
NEW ORLEANS, Feb. 21
Depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease.
Whooley MA, de Jonge P, Vittinghoff E, Otte C, Moos R, Carney RM, Ali S, Dowray S, Na B, Feldman MD, Schiller NB, Browner WS.
JAMA. 2008 Nov 26;300(20):2379-88.
VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA. mary.whooley@ucsf.edu
Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women.
Manson JE, Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, Stefanick ML, Mouton CP, Oberman A, Perri MG, Sheps DS, Pettinger MB, Siscovick DS.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 5;347(10):716-25.
Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston 02215, USA. jmanson@rics.bwh.harvard.edu
Physical activity in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: an epidemiological perspective.
Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG.
Sports Med. 2001 Feb;31(2):101-14.
Department of Primary Care and Population Science, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, England. goya@pcps.ucl.ac.uk
Physical activity and cardiovascular disease.
Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG.
Semin Vasc Med. 2002 Aug;2(3):257-66.
Department of Primary Care and Population Science, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, England. goya@pcps.ucl.ac.uk
Moderate level of aerobic fitness may lower stroke risk
American Stroke Association
Stroke News
02/21/2008
Abstract 119
New Orleans, Feb 21
Study find even moderate fitness can ease stroke risk for men, women
Sunday Patriot News, Sunday, February 24, 2008
The Associated Press
Walking Compared with Vigorous Exercise for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women
JoAnn E. Manson, M.D., Dr.P.H., Philip Greenland, M.D., Andrea Z. LaCroix, Ph.D., Marcia L. Stefanick, Ph.D., Charles P Mouton, M.D., Albert Oberman, M.D., M.P.H., Michael G. Perri, Ph.D, David S. Sheps, M.D,. Mary B. Pettimger, M.S., and David S. Siscovick, M.D., M.P.H.
The New England Journal of Medicine
Volume 347:716-725 -- September 5, 2002 - Number 10
Can physical activity prevent cancer?
Thune I, Smeland S.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Nov 10;120(27):3296-301.
Institute for samfunnsmedisin, Universitetet i Tromsø 9037 Tromsø. Inger.Thune@ism.uit.no
Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study
BMJ  2007;335:1134 (1 December), doi:10.1136/bmj.39367.495995.AE (published 6 November 2007)
Gillian K Reeves, statistical epidemiologist, Kirstin Pirie, statistician, Valerie Beral, director, Jane Green, clinical research scientist, Elizabeth Spencer, nutritionist, Diana Bull, senior statistician, Million Women Study Collaboration
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF
Correspondence to: G Reeves  gill.reeves@ceu.ox.ac.uk
Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.
Inoue M, Yamamoto S, Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Group.
Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Aug 15;168(4):391-403. Epub 2008 Jul 2.
Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan. mnminoue@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp
Leisure-time physical activity, body size, and colon cancer in women. Nurses' Health Study Research Group.
Martínez ME, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Willett WC, Colditz GA.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Jul 2;89(13):948-55.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Leisure-time physical activity patterns and risk of colon cancer in women.
Wolin KY, Lee IM, Colditz GA, Glynn RJ, Fuchs C, Giovannucci E.
Int J Cancer. 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2776-81.
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. wolink@wustl.edu
Physical activity and colorectal cancer.
Slattery ML.
Sports Med. 2004;34(4):239-52.
University of Utah, Health Research Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA. mslatter@hrc.utah.edu
Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study.
Friberg E, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Nov;15(11):2136-40. Epub 2006 Oct 20.
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. emilie.friberg@ki.se
Physical activity and postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk (Sweden).
Moradi T, Weiderpass E, Signorello LB, Persson I, Nyrén O, Adami HO.
Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Oct;11(9):829-37.
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Tahereh.Moradi@mep.ki.se
Physical activity in the prevention of cancer
Kruk J, Aboul-Enein HY.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006 Jan-Mar;7(1):11-21
Institute of Physical Education, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Szczecin, Al. Piastów 40 b/6, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland.
Physical activity and breast cancer incidence in middle-aged women: a prospective cohort study
Mertens AJ, Sweeney C, Shahar E, Rosamond WD, Folsom AR.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 May;97(2):209-14. Epub 2005 Dec 2
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Friedenreich C, Cust A, Lahmann PH, Steindorf K, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Mesrine S, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Pischon T, Schulz M, Tjønneland A, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Mendez M, Arguelles MV, Garcia CM, Larrañaga N, Chirlaque MD, Ardanaz E, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Allen N, Key T, Trichopoulou A, Dilis V, Trichopoulos D, Pala V, Palli D, Tumino R, Panico S, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Monninkhof E, Berglund G, Manjer J, Slimani N, Ferrari P, Kaaks R, Riboli E.
Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;121(2):347-55
Division of Population Health and Information, Alberta Cancer Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. chrisf@cancerboard.ab.ca
Physical activity and reduced risk of colon cancer: implications for prevention
Colditz GA, Cannuscio CC, Frazier AL.
Cancer Causes Control. 1997 Jul;8(4):649-67
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Physical activity interventions for cancer survivors
Doyle C, Kushi LH, Byers T, et al. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treat: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices. CA Cancer J Clin 2006;56:323-53.
Holmes MD, Chen WY, Feskanich D, et al. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. JAMA 2005;293:2479-86
Holick CN, Newcomb PA, Trentham-ietz A, et al. Physical activity and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Cancer epidemiol biomarkers Prev 2008;17:379-86
Irwin ML. Influence of pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity on survival in breast cancer survivors: the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1-7
Kroenke CH, Chen WY, Rosner B, et al. Weight, weight gain, and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:1370-8
Chlebowski RT, Aiello E, McTiernan A. Weight loss in breast cancer patient management. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1128-43
Diabetes control with physical activity and exercise.
Castaneda C.
Nutr Clin Care. 2003 May-Sep;6(2):89-96
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
The diabetes prevention program and its global implications.
Molitch ME, Fujimoto W, Hamman RF, Knowler WC; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003 Jul;14(7 Suppl 2):S103-7
Center for Endocrinology, Northwestern University, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Increasing daily walking improves glucose tolerance in overweight women
Swartz AM, Strath SJ, Bassett DR, Moore JB, Redwine BA, Groër M, Thompson DL
Prev Med. 2003 Oct;37(4):356-62
Department of Health and Exercise Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2700, USA. aswartz@uwm.edu
Physical activity and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai women's health study
Villegas R, Shu XO, Li H, Yang G, Matthews CE, Leitzmann M, Li Q, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W.
Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec;35(6):1553-62. Epub 2006 Sep 19
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review
Jeon CY, Lokken RP, Hu FB, van Dam RM
Diabetes Care. 2007 Mar;30(3):744-52
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA
Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism in lifestyle-related diseases
Sato Y, Nagasaki M, Nakai N, Fushimi T.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Nov;228(10):1208-12
Research Center of Health, Physical Fitness and Sports, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan. ysato@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp
Progress in the prevention of type 2 diabetes
Schernthaner G.
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003 Nov 28;115(21-22):745-57
I. Medizinische Abteilung, Krankenhaus Rudolfstiftung, Wien, Osterreich. guntram.schernthaner@wienkav.at
Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin
Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group
N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403
Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinating Center, Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, 6110 Executive Blvd., Suite 750, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes
Gregg EW, Gerzoff RB, Caspersen CJ, Williamson DF, Narayan KM
Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 23;163(12):1440-7
Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. edg7@cdc.gov
Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective study
Hu FB, Sigal RJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Solomon CG, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Manson JE
JAMA. 1999 Oct 20;282(15):1433-9
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. Frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu
Relationship of Walking to Mortality Among US Adults With Diabetes
Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1440-1447.
Edward W. Gregg, PhD; Robert B. Gerzoff, MS; Carl J. Caspersen, PhD; David F. Williamson, PhD; K. M. Venkat Narayan, MD
Are the eating and exercise habits of successful weight losers changing?
Phelan S, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, Wing RR.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):710-6.
Brown Medical School, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. sphelan@lifespan.org
Association of weight change, weight control practices, and weight cycling among women in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Field AE, Manson JE, Taylor CB, Willett WC, Colditz GA.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Sep;28(9):1134-42.
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, USA.
Behavioral strategies of individuals who have maintained long-term weight losses.
McGuire MT, Wing RR, Klem ML, Hill JO.
Obes Res. 1999 Jul;7(4):334-41.
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213, USA. zie4@cdc.gov
Comparison of 2-year weight loss trends in behavioral treatments of obesity: diet, exercise, and combination interventions.
Skender ML, Goodrick GK, Del Junco DJ, Reeves RS, Darnell L, Gotto AM, Foreyt JP.
J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Apr;96(4):342-6.
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss.
Klem ML, Wing RR, McGuire MT, Seagle HM, Hill JO.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Aug;66(2):239-46.
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA 15213, USA.
Effect of calorie restriction with or without exercise on body composition and fat distribution.
Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Martin CK, Alfonso A, Smith SR, Ravussin E; Pennington CALERIE Team.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):865-72. Epub 2007 Jan 2.
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.
Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial.
Donnelly JE, Hill JO, Jacobsen DJ, Potteiger J, Sullivan DK, Johnson SL, Heelan K, Hise M, Fennessey PV, Sonko B, Sharp T, Jakicic JM, Blair SN, Tran ZV, Mayo M, Gibson C, Washburn RA.
Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 9;163(11):1343-50.
Energy Balance Laboratory, Schiefelbusch Life span Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, USA. jdonnelly@ku.edu
Effect of diet and exercise on body composition, energy intake and leptin levels in overweight women and men.
Volpe SL, Kobusingye H, Bailur S, Stanek E.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Apr;27(2):195-208.
University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Division of Biobehavioral and Health Sciences, Claire M. Fagin Hall, 418 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6096, USA. svolpe@nursing.upenn.edu
Effects of habitual physical activity on the resting metabolic rates and body compositions of women aged 35 to 50 years.
Gilliat-Wimberly M, Manore MM, Woolf K, Swan PD, Carroll SS.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Oct;101(10):1181-8.
Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University East, Mesa, USA.
Exercise-induced reduction in obesity and insulin resistance in women: a randomized controlled trial.
Ross R, Janssen I, Dawson J, Kungl AM, Kuk JL, Wong SL, Nguyen-Duy TB, Lee S, Kilpatrick K, Hudson R.
Obes Res. 2004 May;12(5):789-98.
School of Physical and Health Education, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. rossr@post.queensu.ca
Effect of exercise duration and intensity on weight loss in overweight, sedentary women: a randomized trial.
Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Gallagher KI, Napolitano M, Lang W.
JAMA. 2003 Sep 10;290(10):1323-30.
University of Pittsburgh, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. jjakicic@pitt.edu
Exercise duration and intensity in a weight-loss program.
Chambliss HO.
Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Mar;15(2):113-5.
The Cooper Institute, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Fifteen-year longitudinal trends in walking patterns and their impact on weight change.
Gordon-Larsen P, Hou N, Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Lewis CE, Jacobs DR Jr, Popkin BM.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):19-26. Epub 2008 Dec 3.
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Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16, 2042, October 1, 2007. Published Online First September 28, 2007;
doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0061
© 2007 American Association for Cancer Research

1 Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 2 Center for Research in Reproduction and Women's Health, 3 Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, 4 General Clinical Research Center, and 5 Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and 6 Departments of Public Health and Obstetrics/Gynecology, Temple University College of Health Professions, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania

Requests for reprints: Kathryn H. Schmitz, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 423 Guardian Drive, 921 Blockley Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Phone: 215-898-6604; Fax: 215-573-2265. E-mail: Schmitz@mail.med.upenn.edu
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Charles H. Hillman is at the Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, 213 Louise Freer Hall, 906 South Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. chhillma@uiuc.edu
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Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Dec;26 Suppl 1:124-7. Epub 2005 Oct 5.
Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 405 N. Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. akramer@s.psych.uiuc.edu
Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition.
Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF.
Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008 Jan;9(1):58-65.
Charles H. Hillman is at the Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, 213 Louise Freer Hall, 906 South Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. chhillma@uiuc.edu

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